Considerations for exercise in plateau environment
With the increase of altitude, atmospheric pressure and partial pressure of oxygen decrease gradually.Low altitude: below 1200 meters Medium altitude: 1200 to 2400 meters High altitude: at 2400 to 4000 meters High altitude: above 4000 meters high altitude: above 4000 metersFor most people, at altitudes of 1200 meters and above, physical activity decreases with the increase of altitude, physical activity time, and muscle mass, but decreases with adaptation to the altitude.The most common effects of altitude on physical mobility are increased time required to complete activities and increased frequency of rest.While it takes less time to complete an exercise after adaptation, it still takes longer than it would on the plains.1. Altitude sickness: acute mountain sickness, hypergenic cerebral edema, hypergenic pulmonary edema, etc.In addition, many people develop sore throats, bronchitis and other symptoms, which can lead to functional impairment and severe coughing fits.People with a prior history and chronic physical exertion and dehydration in the early stages of altitude exposure are at increased risk.Symptoms of acute mountain sickness: headache, nausea, fatigue, loss of appetite and poor sleep.Acute mountain sickness occurs within 24 hours of exposure to the plateau, and incidence and severity are proportional to the rate and height of elevation rise.At moderate altitudes, the incidence of acute mountain sickness is 0-15%.The incidence of acute mountain sickness at high altitudes is 15-70%.The incidence of acute mountain sickness at very high altitudes is 75-85%.High cerebral edema is an uncommon but potentially fatal disease, occurring in less than 2% of cases at altitudes above 3,657 meters.Hypergenic pulmonary edema is also an uncommon and potentially fatal condition, occurring in less than 10% at altitudes above 3,658 meters.2. The prevention and treatment of altitude sickness Gradually adapt to the plateau environment is the best strategy for all altitude sickness.Reducing constant exercise and maintaining adequate hydration and food intake can reduce susceptibility to altitude sickness and promote recovery.When moderate or severe signs and symptoms associated with altitude sickness occur, the preferred treatment is to descend to lower altitudes.Long-term stays at 300-900 meters can effectively prevent all altitude sickness and promote recovery of altitude sickness. Acute altitude sickness prevention and treatment: acetazolamide, oxygen inhalation, hyperbaric oxygen chamber treatment.High cerebral edema or high pulmonary edema may require elevation reduction and treatment with oxygen therapy or hyperbaric oxygen bags.3. Acute mountain sickness symptoms will appear within a few hours after the altitude of about 4300 meters before going directly to the high mountain area before adapting to the plateau environment.Normal physical activity and exercise training can be gradually resumed after acclimation to the altitude environment and relief of symptoms of altitude sickness.4. Altitude adaptation and assessment Ascending from a low to a high altitude area, one should live in a medium altitude area for at least 3 days.Living at mid-altitude for 3 to 7 days reduces the risk of altitude sickness at higher altitudes.Phased adaptation Guidelines for Altitude exercise The general phased adaptation guidelines are as follows: for an individual preacclimated at a moderate altitude of 1200 m, the subsequent rapid elevation is equal to the number of days the individual has adapted physically at the original altitude multiplied by 305 m.For example, if a person stays at 1,829 meters for six days according to the phased principle, his physical ability will improve, and he will be very unlikely to develop altitude sickness when he goes to 3,657 meters above sea level.This guideline applies up to 4,267 meters above sea level.Best indicators of altitude fitness assessment Altitude sickness symptoms reduced physical activity improved heart rate reduced oxygen saturation increased the presence and severity of acute mountain sickness can be assessed by signs and symptoms.Normal adaptive response: no acute mountain sickness or only mild symptoms occurred at 3-4 days of elevation rise.During the first 1-2 weeks of altitude adaptation, subextreme intensity exercise ability improved.An early sign of adaptation to high altitude is an increase in urine production during the first few days of adaptation, followed by a gradual return to normal.Exercise prescription A few days before the plateau, physical activity should be reduced.Exercise heart rate can be controlled using the same bullseye rate as plain, and the number of sessions per week and duration of training are similar to those in plain.6. Special Precautions Monitor the environment: Higher elevations are generally associated with more daily extremes of temperature, humidity, wind and solar radiation.Adjust activities: consider altitude adaptation, physical fitness, nutrition, sleep, age, exercise duration and intensity, and fluid supply.Clothing: Clothing and equipment are needed to provide protection against greater temperature differences, wind and solar radiation.Education: Training of relevant personnel can reduce the incidence of altitude-related diseases.7, organization plan participants screening and monitoring of risks to minimise the risk of plateau adaptability training will plateau reaction, and enhance physical design and want to consider the damage of mountainous terrain alert when altitude sickness of signs and symptoms develop altitude sickness emergency medical treatment organization program staff to oxygen to prepare in advance equipment and drugs, in the prevention and treatment of plateau response.