Winter Olympics | Why celebrate spring in ice and snow?
As you may remember, rain is the first screen in the countdown to the Opening ceremony of the Beijing Winter Olympic Games on February 4.From rain, awakening of Insects, has been to summer, autumn, winter, twenty-four solar terms, the countdown to the last second, stay in the “Spring” solar term – all things start, is for spring, this germination of hope, opened the Prelude to the Winter Olympics.Rain, the second solar term of spring in the Year of Renyin, has already entered today, but it seems that spring has not come yet. In Beijing, the host city of the Winter Olympics, snowfall over the weekend affected the safety of the skiing competition and postponed it.From yesterday to today, areas along the Yangtze River received the second heavy snow since the start of spring.Of course, we all know, rationally, that the coldest moment is over, that the hours of sunshine are lengthening, and that the chill is building up strength for spring growth.But we still wonder: how did our ancestors, thousands of years ago, penetrate perceptual experience and see the mystery of the rotation of the four seasons?Our ancestors, how is from the white snow, detect the interest of spring, and even have confidence, confidence in such a cold winter, began to celebrate the arrival of spring?To answer these questions, we should first look at how the 24 solar terms come from.The calendar has a long history. Based on the rise of the sun and the set of the moon and the changes of the four seasons, our ancestors observed the changes of time and worked out a ruler of time.The lunar calendar is the earliest calendar in human history. It is based on the lunar (moon) cycle called “month”, and the twelve months are called a year.The ancient people observed that the synodic cycle roughly averaged 29.5 days, so the odd month was 29 days, and the even month was 30 days, so the year was 354 days.The lunar calendar has the advantage that the date of each month coincides with the position of the moon, making it suitable for observing ocean tides, fishing activities and religious ceremonies.However, the lunar calendar year is shorter than the length of the earth’s orbit around the sun, the tropical year (365.2422 days), so it does not exactly match the seasons and is therefore not suitable for agricultural production, and is no longer applicable in most areas.The equivalent is the solar calendar, which is based on the period of the Earth’s revolution around the sun.The astronomical calendar measures the regression year, which is the interval between the two consecutive passage of the sun through the vernal equinox. In fact, the length of each tropical year is not completely consistent. The standard duration of 365.2422 days is calculated according to the average of 121 tropical years.Ancient Chinese people have been observing and recording astronomical calendars for a long time, as early as the “Yellow Emperor calendar” 365.25 days a year.Yao Emperor in the ancient emperor, is to “observe the time”, “rites and music education”, and was praised by the Emperor Han Wudi as “thousands of ancient emperor fan, thousands of generations of civil teacher, the beginning of civilization, the world respect depends on”.”Shang Shu · Yao Dian” records that “three hundred sixty days have six days, with leap month fixed four hours, into the year”.Sunrise and we are now widely adopted the Gregorian calendar has experienced from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar changes: in the 46 years, the Roman empire, rulers, Julian Caesar, astronomers in Egypt with the help of the calendar reform, set up 12 months each year (only used as a unit of time, has been out of the moon change), the year 365 days, and at the 10th day after the winter solstice as every three years for a leap year.Because the Julian calendar is 365.25 days a year, 0.0078 days older than the return, so in 1582, Pope Gregory XIII used astronomers’ improvement plan, will every 4 years a leap day to 400 years set 97 leap days, that is, only by 400 century years are considered leap years, and 1900, 2100 are only ordinary years.It took more than 3,000 years for the Gregorian calendar to differ from the Tropical year by one day, so it was later adopted by more countries and became the Gregorian calendar.China’s traditional calendar uses the lunar calendar, or lunar calendar, summer calendar: based on the lunar calendar to set up the “month”, and based on the tropical year to set up the “year”, taking into account the coordination of lunar phase changes and seasonal cycle, can scientifically guide daily life and agricultural production.Specifically, the lunar calendar of the first month is always new moon, big month 30, small month 29, specific arrangements according to the astronomical speculation.The lunar year is adapted to the tropical year cycle by leap month, with a total of 354 or 355 days for twelve months in an ordinary year.Thirteen leap years have 384 or 385 days.As early as the Spring and Autumn Period in the 6th century BC, the Chinese people had already adopted the “19 years and seven leap method” – 19 tropical years with 6939.6018 days, 19 lunar years with 6939.68865 days, the difference between the two is only 0.08685 days, so it is very accurate.The 24 solar terms, is on the basis of China’s traditional lunar calendar, and according to the annual movement of the sun, marking the change of the season of farming – so the 24 solar terms can be regarded as a solar calendar, which is why the beginning of spring every year is around February 4, qingming is around April 5.Specifically, solar term is regarded as a solar term when the sun moves 15° on the ecliptic. Each solar term reflects the change of time, phenology and climate, and recognizes the law of season, which plays a special role in guiding agricultural production.When emperor Yao observed the time of the ancient star observatory, he used the method of “changing the stars and fixing the age”, that is, according to the rotation of the big Dipper handle to determine the cycle of the four seasons.In the reign of Emperor Wudi of the Han Dynasty, the 24 solar terms were clearly absorbed into the lunar calendar as a supplement. The method of measuring shadow by pole was adopted to determine that the day with the longest shadow and the shortest day was regarded as the winter solstice and the starting point of the 24 solar terms.The current solar term calendar was developed more than 300 years ago, which divides the ecliptic (the apparent path of the sun in the celestial sphere) into 24 equal parts. Spring is divided into 0 degrees, but the beginning of the year is spring.Because the earth’s orbit around the sun is not perfect circle, so the degrees of each solar term is equal, but the time is not exactly the same, is the natural result of the movement of celestial bodies.On the winter Solstice, the longitude of the sun is 270°, which is the maximum point of direct sunlight going south. In the northern hemisphere of China,This day is the shortest day, the longest night of the day, after this day our country’s light time will gradually become longer, can be said to be an important moment when Yin and Yang cross Tai.Therefore, during the reign of Emperor Wudi of the Han Dynasty, this day was set as the beginning of the year and regarded as the “auspicious day”.There is also a saying in China that “the winter Solstice is as big as the year”. In northern China, there is a saying that “people will freeze their ears and eat dumpling bowls on the winter Solstice, and no one will care about them”. In southern China, there is a folk custom of family reunion and sacrifice to ancestors on this important day.After the winter solstice, it is “the sun to the south, north back again”, until the sun’s yellow longitude reaches 0°, to another important date in astronomy: vernal equinox.On this day, the day in the Northern Hemisphere begins to be longer than the night. With the abundant sunshine, warm weather, abundant rain and bright scenery all over China usher in spring.From the winter Solstice to the vernal equinox, the stone arch Bridge in Hangzhou’s Taizi Bay Park experiences five solar terms: Minor Cold, Major Cold, Start of Spring, Rain and Awakening of Insects.Although the sunshine is the shortest on the winter solstice, the temperature has not yet dropped to the lowest, and the coldest day is “minor cold and Major Cold, when there is no wind, it will be cold”.This cold even extends to the rainy season, when the weather changes hot and cold.Until the Awakening of Insects is the real Yang rise, temperature warming, spring thunder all things grow.But our wise ancient ancestors did not mark the vernal equinox as the beginning of a year. Instead, they celebrated spring early, just as the sun moved between the winter solstice and the vernal equinox. The moon was the beginning of spring, and the beginning of spring was the beginning of the year, before the snow and ice melted and the seeds were still in the soil.This is the wisdom and certainty that has been passed down from generation to generation. It is also the hope and confidence that are full of vitality.From the perspective of astronomy and meteorology, the Start of Spring solar term falls in the middle of the transition from winter to spring, symbolizing that the closed winter is fading and the growing spring is coming.”Establishment” is the beginning, everything is renewed, although spring has not really arrived, but we have been sensitive to find that the spirit of vegetation began to stir.The secret of phenological change is hidden in all kinds of details: “the east wind thaws in one hou;Second penumber, the sting begins to vibrate;Ice fish on the third.The snow is still there, but the news of spring has indeed come.Spring is coming and the flowers are blooming.From an agricultural point of view, it is too hasty to wait until the weather is really warm to prepare for spring ploughing, when the start of Spring is the right time to start preparing for a whole year of farming.Since ancient times, China has traditionally welcomed spring officials, offered sacrifices to the spring god, flogged the spring ox and other customs, from the emperor to the ordinary people, began to prepare for the autumn harvest.Before the Qin and Han dynasties, in some areas, the beginning of the year was the start of Spring, rather than the Lunar Calendar. After the Han Dynasty, the “beginning of one year” festival was gradually concentrated on the “First day of the New Year”.But the Lunar New Year’s Day is usually just before and after the start of spring, so god worship, pray for old na Fu, exorcism disaster, eliminate old cloth and other rich activities, in fact, are contained in our “Spring Festival”.Yuanxiao can now answer the question in the title. The reason why we Chinese celebrate spring in the snow and ice is, first and foremost, because we have inherited wisdom and rationality from generation to generation.Thousands of years ago, through astronomical observation and experience accumulation, our ancestors determined an accurate and scientific calendar to guide agricultural production, comfort and nourish people.So though we are in the midst of ice and snow, we can already see the general trend of the warm spring.Second, because we have the courage to embrace hope in the early morning light.Winter may be a long and difficult time, but the Chinese civilization has been passed on for thousands of years. With generation after generation of diligence, solidarity, kindness and perseverance, the Chinese people have overcome difficulties one after another.We have suffered and hit rock bottom, but we never give in and give up.The Chinese people have written one great legend after another with down-to-earth tenacity, a public mind and passion for life.The countdown to the opening ceremony of the Beijing Winter Olympic Games begins with rain and ends with The start of Spring.As rain begins today, tomorrow will be the closing ceremony of the Winter Olympics — but the flame of hope, lit by snowflakes and olive branches, will remain forever in the common memory of mankind, along with this Spring Festival of ice and snow.If you have a chance, you must go to see the snowflake torchbearing-platform: the pure snowflakes with the names of different countries, together surrounding the small fire of human peace and progress, forming a big snowflake surrounded by olive branches, and this snowflake continues to shine and spin under the flying arc.Exclusive: Beijing Winter Olympics Yanqing competition torch platform “the Light of the Great Wall” night charming into the “net red card” snow fire, is the ultimate romance of one heart;Torch platform, is the vitality of the continuous deep expectations.But beyond this poetic beauty, there is an endless supply of hydrogen fuel and a strict structural design: the light, stable and environmentally friendly torch, China is a technological powerhouse.Therefore, this torch is not only the poetry of Chinese culture, but also the future of a community with a shared future for mankind. We have the confidence and courage to celebrate the spring in the snow and ice. We also believe and look forward to the future of mankind, which is not only higher, faster and stronger, but also more united and sharing the future together.